The tensile strength, measured as breaking length, showed a remarkable increase with the addition of 1% viscose fibres. The shear-lag approach is a good candidate for analysis of the fracture energy of paper loaded under in-plane tension, although in this paper we will restrict attention to the tensile strength.A central concept of the shear-lag theory is the transfer of load into the fiber from the surrounding matrix. It is one of the most important basic physical properties of paper and paperboard. Previous research presented methods to improve the tensile strength of paper. Such materials include but are not limited to tissue products, papers used in map-making, photography, and blue prints, bags and food wraps. Most papers require a certain minimum strength to withstand the treatment received by the product in use; but even where use requirements are not severe, the paper must be strong enough to permit efficient handling in manufacture. The tensile test is shown in Fig. The Tensile Test is usually performed in the plastic industries to measure the tensile strength of the plastic materials. Since the fiber orientation is dissimilar between machine direction (MD) and cross direction CD), hence the tensile strength is … Douglas C. Montgomery. Testing It Out. C610H Auto Tensile Tester. wide using a constant rate of elongation according to TAPPI Standard T 494. Tensile strength is dependent on both the fiber strength properties and the bonding that occurs between fibers. When paper is dry- Google Scholar Gallay W (1949) Some factors in the strength of paper. Whereas, Tensile Strength is the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before failing or breaking. The most common are the Scott type internal bond strength which is a dynamic impact test based on the energy stored when a pendulum is released. However, it is common that the tensile strength of products from the production processes has high variation and deviation of the process means from their targets. Tensile strength is measured on paper strips 20 cm (7.9 in.) Tappi J 77(6):158–166. The purchaser of the bags requires them to have a strength of at least 35 lb/in2. stretch or elongation at break, and TEA (Fig. tensile strength n. Abbr. TS The resistance of a material to a force tending to tear it apart, measured as the maximum tension the material can withstand without tearing. The tensile strength theory that has attracted the most attention has been that of Page. The relation of fiber length to paper tensile (bonding) strength is somewhat complex. Tensile Strength Testing For materials, semi-finished and final products, tensile or tension testing is the most important type of mechanical test we can perform on them. T-404 and T-494 are useful in evaluating the tensile properties of paper (4). C610H is professionally applicable to measurement of tensile, peeling, deformation, tearing, heat sealing, adhesive, physical force as well as other properties of soft package materials, adhesives, aluminum foils, diaphragms, back sheets, non-woven fabrics, rubber and paper… Breaking Length (km) = 102*T/R or 3.658*T 1 /R 1 T = Tensile Strength, kN/m T 1 = Tensile Strength, lb/inch The tensile test is shown in Fig. Tensile strength test for paper has been regularly used in measurement of paper quality in the industry. Z-direction tensile strength was evaluated according to SCAN-P80:98, . The ultimate force is reported in lb/in., kg/m, or N/m. wide using a constant rate of elongation according to TAPPI Standard T 494. Manufacturers have to test their paper for these properties, and one is ‘tensile strength’, the strength of the paper, both wet and dry. TAPPI tensile strength testsTAPPI tests. The tensile strength of paper is modeled by a normal distribution with a mean of 35 pounds per square inch and a standard deviation of 2 pounds per square inch. Wet tensile tests on paper are carried out to DIN ISO 3781 or TAPPI T 456. Dasgupta S (1994) Mechanism of paper tensile-strength development due to pulp beating. Tensile is tensile. Yield is yield. To put it very crudely, yield is when the material first gives plastically. Tensile is when it breaks. The difference between the two is, for most materials, a work hardening process. Once a material yields it gets stronger. Try the Course for Free. Traditional micromechanical theories for the tensile strength of paper do not account for the tensile stiffness of paper, even though in practice tensile strength is closely coupled with tensile. 4.2 Tensile strength is indicative of the serviceability of many papers, such as wrapping, bag, gummed tape, and cable wrapping, that are subjected to direct tensile stress. This again an indication of what level of tensile strength can be achieved in real paper making environment. Page showed that the tensile strength of paper could be expressed in a simple and effective way by the equation: b P RBA A T Z λ 12 ρ 8 1 9 = + , (1) Sealed aging test vessels containing copper, laminated core, Kraft/Diamond paper… Tensile tests provide information on a range of properties Stiffness, modulus, tensile strength, tear length and energy absorption. Tensile strength is measured on paper strips 20 cm (7.9 in.) Aging of insulating paper has been studied by performing accelerated thermal aging test. However, if carefully fractionated fibers are cut so that fiber length is the only variable, a decrease in tensile strength is observed [2]. Chapter 8 Verifications of Models for Tensile Strength of Paper _____ _____ 122 8.2 Verification of the Page equation As discussed in Chapter 2, the Page equation (as given in Equation 8.1) is the most commonly used model for the tensile strength of paper. The ultimate force is reported in lb/in., kg/m, or N/m. Tensile strength can also be used as an indication of the potential resistance to web breaking of papers such as printing papers during printing on a web fed press or other web fed converting operations. 2). Breaking length is generally used in the paper trade to characterize the inherent strength of paper. The initial tensile strength of the paper is thus directly involved in the number of folds obtained, as is the load on the test strip and the resistance of the paper to folding fatigue. When evaluating the tensile strength, the stretch and the tensile energy absorption for these Another problem is with the micromechanical input parameters, … They measure the tensile strength of paper by determining how much stress the paper can withstand before tearing apart. Their effect can be seen when strength distributions are measured from large enough samples [19]. The tensile strength is different basis on fiber direction. Theoretical consideration has been given to the mechanism of the tensile failure of paper in terms of the relative importance of fiber strength and bond strength. Tensile index: The tensile index is also a measure of inherent strength of paper and is similar to the notion of breaking length. Although it does not have quite the graphic significance that breaking length has, the tensile index has been increasingly used in the literature following the conversion to SI units. The intended use of a paper indicates the tensile strength it must have.
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